المشتري … عملاق الكواكب ( سلسلة المجموعة الشمسية – الموضوع رقم 10 )

لو اقترب أحد رواد الفضاء من كوكب المشتري. خامس الكواكب بُعداً عن الشمس. لوصفه بأنه يظهر كقرص هائل من الذهب تتوسطه خطوط مضيئة يتدرج لونها من الأصفر الباهت إلى الأحمر القاني أما في أقصى الشمال والجنوب فتحيط به أحزمة مظلمة نسبياً يتدرج لونها من البني إلى الأزرق المعتم.

الغلاف الجوي لكوكب المشتري عبارة عن آلاف الكيلومترات من الجزيئات الغازية وكرات الهيدروجين المتجمد والهليوم وبخار النشادر والميثان ، تتخللها أعاصير عاتية تبلغ سرعتها مئات الكيلومترات في الساعة.

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يطلق على كوكب المشتري عملاق الكواكب.. إذ أنه أكبرها جميعاً ، إذ يبلغ قطره نحو 138 ألف كيلومتر ، أي ما يقرب من عشرة أمثال قطر كوكب الأرض ، ومتوسط درجة حرارة الكوكب حوالي 160 درجة مئوية تحت الصفر.

يتحرك كوكب المشتري حول الشمس في مدار يبدو بطيئاً بالنسبة لسرعة دورانه حول نفسه، ويتم دورته حول الشمس فيما يقرب من 12 سنة من سنواتنا الأرضية ، ويبلغ متوسط بُعد كوكب المشتري العملاق عن الشمس نحو 778 مليون كيلومتر ، وتدور حول كوكب المشتري مجموعة من حوالي 20 قمراً ، أهمها ( جانيميد ) و ( كاليستو ) و ( إيو ) و ( يوروبا ).

أما الكتلة المركزية الصلبة لكوكب المشتري فتتكون من مركز صخري يبلغ حجمه ضعف حجم كوكب الأرض ، تعلوه طبقة من الهيدروجين الذي تحول إلى معدن بسبب الضغط الهائل ، أما الطبقة الخارجية فتتكون من الهيدروجين والهليوم السائلين.

كما اكتشف حديثاً أن لكوكب المشتري أربع حلقات تحيط به ، وهي رقيقة تتكون من جزيئات صغيرة من الغبار ، ويبلغ عرض أكبر هذه الحلقات نحو 52 ألف كيلومتر.

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ولعل أغرب ما في هذا الكوكب العملاق ، تلك البقعة الحمراء الكبرى ، التي تبدو كعلامة هائلة لونها يتأرجح بين الوردي والبرتقالي ، وهي بيضاوية الشكل ، وتبلغ أبعادها آلاف الكيلومترات ، واتضح أنها عبارة عن أعاصير دوامية جبارة تدور في جو المشتري.

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تحتوي هذه الصورة على سمة alt فارغة; اسم الملف هو unnamedsss.png
تحتوي هذه الصورة على سمة alt فارغة; اسم الملف هو unnamedsss.png

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