فوائد فاكهة النجمة ( الفاكهة اللذيذة )



فاكهة النجمة، المعروفة أيضًا باسم كارامبولا (Carambola)، هي من الفاكهة الاستوائية وتكون على شكل نجمة وهي ذات نكهة حلوة وحامضة. الموطن الأصلي لفاكهة النجمة هو شبه جزيرة مالايان ويتم زراعتها في أجزاء كبيرة من جنوب شرق آسيا وجزر المحيط الهادئ والصين للحصول على ثمارها. وعلى الرغم من وفرتها الكبيرة إلا أن الكارامبولا لم تكتسب شعبية واسعة وخاصة في العالم الغربي.

الاسم العلمي : أفيرهوا كارامبولا Averrhoa carambola

الجنس أفيرهوا Averrhoa، وهو يتضمن نوعين معروفين هما (Oxalidaceae) من عائلة الأشجار المثمرة، وCarambola  و Bilimbi (من عائلة شجرة الخيار).

فاكهة النجمة هي شجرة دائمة الخضرة صغيرة تنمو بشكل جيد جدًا في الظروف الحارة والرطبة والاستوائية. ويحمل النبات زهورًا صغيرة أرجوانية ملونة على شكل جرس في مجموعات تتطور لاحقًا إلى ثمار مستوية الشكل ذات حواف وزوايا خماسية مميزة (جانبية أو أضلاع) وتظهر وكأنها نجم البحر في المقاطع العرضية. كل من أصنافها الحلوة والحامضة تبدأ في البساتين القابلة للزراعة، وتصبح جاهزة للحصاد عندما تصل الشجرة إلى عمر حوالي 3-4 سنوات.

تتميز ثمار فاكهة الكارامبولا بلون أخضر إلى أصفر مع سطح شمعي ناعم جذاب وهي تزن حوالي 70-130 غرام. من الداخل اللب يمكن إما أن يكون حلوًا خفيفًا أو حامضًا للغاية اعتمادًا على نوع الصنف وكمية تركيز حمض الأكساليك. في بعض أصنافها، يوجد 2-5 بذور صغيرة صالحة للأكل في وسط كل تجويف عند الزاوية.



اختيار وتخزين فاكهة النجمة

يمكن أن تتوفر فاكهة النجمة الطازجة مرتين في الموسم. في فلوريدا على سبيل المثال، الأصناف تكون متاحة من ديسمبر إلى مارس. بشكل عام، يتم قطف الفاكهة قبل اكتمال مرحلة النضج للشحن والتخزين. حيث أن الثمار الناضجة تميل إلى الإصابة بسهولة، وخاصة حوافها الضيقة.

أثناء الشراء اختر الثمار ذات اللون الموحدة، والكبيرة، وذات اللون الأصفر أو البرتقالي وتجنب اللون الأخضر والفاكهة صغيرة الحجم لأنها تميل إلى أن تكون حمضية للغاية. تجنب الثمار التي عليها أية جروح أو بقع.

الفواكه الناضجة تميل إلى أن تتخرب في وقت مبكر. ومع ذلك، فإنها تبقى جيدة في المخازن الباردة عند الاحتفاظ بها في درجات الحرارة المناسبة. في المنزل، يمكن تخزين الفواكه الخضراء الخفيفة غير الناضجة في درجة حرارة الغرفة حتى تتحول إلى اللون البرتقالي والأصفر النابض بالحياة. قد تبقى الفواكه الناضجة جيدة لمدة 2-3 أيام في درجة حرارة الغرفة، ولكن يجب تخزينها في الثلاجة إذا أردت الاحتفاظ بها أكثر.

اكهة النجمة (أفيرهوا كارامبولا) الخامة الطازجة، القيمة الغذائية لكل 100 غرام.

 (المصدر: وزارة الزراعة الأمريكية، قاعدة بيانات المغذيات الوطنية)

فاكهة النجمة هي واحدة من الفواكه منخفضة السعرات الحرارية جدًا. 100 غرام هذه الفاكهة يوفر فقط 31 سعرة حرارية، وهو أقل بكثير من أي نوع من الفواكه الاستوائية الشائعة الأخرى. ومع ذلك، فإنها تحتوي على قائمة مثيرة للإعجاب من العناصر الغذائية الأساسية، ومضادات الأكسدة، والفيتامينات اللازمة لتحسين الصحة.

الفاكهة مع قشرها الشمعي توفر كمية جيدة من الألياف الغذائية. هذه الألياف تساعد على منع امتصاص الكولسترول السيئ في القناة الهضمية. كما أن هذه الألياف الغذائية تساعد أيضًا على حماية الغشاء المخاطي للقولون من التعرض للمواد السامة عن طريق ربط المواد الكيميائية المسببة لمرض سرطان القولون.

فاكهة النجمة تحتوي على كميات جيدة من فيتامين C. فيتامين C هو من مضادات الأكسدة الطبيعية القوية. 100 غرام من فاكهة النجمة الطازجة يوفر 34.7 ملغ أو 57٪ من الكمية اليومية المطلوبة من فيتامين C. وبشكلٍ عام، استهلاك الفواكه الغنية بفيتامين C يساعد الجسم البشري على تطوير مقاومةٍ ضد العوامل المعدية والضارة والجذور الحرة المؤيدة للالتهابات من الجسم.

فاكهة النجمة غنية بمضادات الأكسدة مثل  الفلافونوليفين. بعض الفلافونويدات الهامة الموجودة هي كيرسيتين وإبيكاتشين وحمض الغاليك. وإجمالًا، تساعد هذه المركبات على الحماية من الآثار الضارة للجذور الحرة المستمدة من الأكسجين عن طريق إبعادها عن الجسم.

إلى جانب ذلك، فاكهة النجمة هي مصدر جيد لفيتامينات B المعقدة مثل فولاتس، الريبوفلافين، والبيريدوكسين (فيتامين B-6). معًا، تساعد هذه الفيتامينات كعوامل مشتركة الأنزيمات في عملية التمثيل الغذائي وكذلك في مختلف الوظائف الصناعية داخل الجسم.

تحتوي فاكهة النجمة كمية صغيرة من المعادن والشوارد مثل البوتاسيوم والفوسفور والزنك والحديد. البوتاسيوم هو عنصر مهم في الخلايا وسوائل الجسم وهو يساعد في السيطرة على معدل ضربات القلب وضغط الدم. وبالتالي، فإنه يقلل التأثيرات السيئة للصوديوم.

الاستخدامات الطبية

غالبًا ما يوصى بثمار النجمة وعصيرها في العديد من الأدوية الشعبية في البرازيل كمدر للبول (لزيادة كمية البول)، ومقشع، ومنع السعال. (لكن هذه الخصائص لم يتم إثباتها علميًا).

عادة ما تستخدم فاكهة النجمة كمقبلات في السلطة والمشروبات، وكذلك لنقل نكهة اللفت في الأطباق.

بالنظر إلى ارتفاع محتوى حمض الأوكساليك، تستخدم بشكلٍ  قليل في الصناعة.

للتحضير، قم بغسلها جيدًا بالماء البارد، وجففها باستخدام القماش. ثم قم بتقليم نهايات وحواف الزوايا المضلعة. الأن قطع الفاكهة إلى أقسام رقيقة والتي تشبه نجم البحر.

يمكن أن تؤكل الكارامبولا الحلوة لوحدها أو مختلطة مع الفواكه الأخرى في السلطة. كما يمكن أيضًا تناول الفواكه الطازجة واستخدامها في الكوكتيلات مع عصائر الفاكهة الاستوائية التكميلية الأخرى.

يحبذ النوع الحامض في الطهي لأنها تنقل نكهة طعم فريدة من نوعها للحم الدجاج واللحوم الأخرى، وأطباق المأكولات البحرية.

فاكهة النجمة يمكن استخدامها لصنع الصلصة والمخلل والفطائر والمربى.

تحتوي هذه الصورة على سمة alt فارغة; اسم الملف هو 6874741.gif

فاكهة النجمة هي واحدة من المصادر النباتية التي تحتوي على أعلى تركيز من حمض الأكساليك. 100 غرام من هذه الفاكهة الطازجة يحتوي على 50,000-95,800 جزء في المليون من حمض الأكساليك. وقد اعتبر حمض الأكساليك كمركب مضاد للمغذيات حيث أنه يتداخل مع الامتصاص والتمثيل الغذائي للعديد من المعادن الطبيعية مثل الكالسيوم والمغنيسيوم وما إلى ذلك.

ويهيئ أيضًا إلى حالة تعرف باسم أوكسالوريا، وهي حالة قد تؤدي إلى تشكيل الحصى الأوكسالية في الكلى. وعند بعض الأشخاص الذين يعانون من ضعف وظائف الكلى، فإن استهلاكها يؤدي إلى الفشل الكلوي وقد يسبب الموت. لذلك، ينبغي تنبيه الأفراد الذين يعانون من أمراض الكلى المعروفة إلى ضرورة تجنب تناول فاكهة النجمة.

إضافةً إلى ذلك، تبين أن فاكهة النجمة مثل الجريب فروت، تتفاعل مع العديد من الأدوية. بعض المركبات في الكارامبولا تمنع بشكل لا رجعة فيه السيتوكروم والإنزيمات (3A4) في الأمعاء والكبد. هذا قد يؤدي إلى آثار ضارة وسمية. لذلك، ينصح بشدة باستشارة طبيبك قبل تناول فاكهة النجمة أو منتجاتها إذا كنت تأخذ أي أدوية.

تحتوي هذه الصورة على سمة alt فارغة; اسم الملف هو 6874741.gif


تحتوي هذه الصورة على سمة alt فارغة; اسم الملف هو 6874741.gif

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