في هذه الأيام تعمل البنوك والمصارف أعمالاً عديدة بحيث نسي الإنسان أنها قد أسست لإتمام غرضين رئيسيين :
الأول : قبول الودائع من الناس وحفظ تلك الأموال حتى يحتاجها مالكها.
والثاني : إعطاء قروض للأشخاص الذين يرغبون في دفع الفوائد لقاء تلك القروض ولما كان المصرف يتقاضى الفوائد على النقود.
ولقد مضى على الناس حين من الدهر اعتبروا استيفاء الفوائد على القروض عملاً لا أخلاقياً وقد منعت بعض الدول مواطنيها من العمل في الصيرفة.
ومع ذلك فإن الصيرفة قديمة قدم التاريخ نفسه.
فقد استعملت الصيرفة في بابل القديمة ومصر وبلاد اليونان.
وكانت المعابد عادة هي الأمكنة التي تودع فيها النقود.
وقد صدر قانون في روما عام 210 ق .م . أفرد به مكان في السوق الكبير لنشاط مبادلات العملة والنقود.
ولقد أتت كلمة Bank من اللغة الإيطالية ففي العصور الوسطى كان المشتغلون بالشؤون المالية يمارسون أعمالهم وهم جالسون على بنوك ومن هنا كلمة البنك.
ولقد بدأت أعمال البنوك الحديثة في البندقية عام 1587 عندما تأسس ( بانكودي ريالتو) وقد كان هذا المصرف يقبل الودائع ويسمح للمودعين بكتابة شيكات للنقود.
وفي عام 1619 استلم بانكوديل جيرو شؤون المصرف السابق الذكر وأعطى إيصالات للنقود الذهبية أو الفضية المودعة وقد استعملت هذه الإيصالات كنقود ورقية.
وأما بنك أمستردام الذي تأسس عام 1609 فقد أعطى إيصالات استعلمت كنقود ورقية.
جزيرة الأمل || Hope island
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