دائرة المعارف الذرية 5
(Photoelectric Effect – Geiger Counter – Atomicdust – Photon )
ظاهرة التحول الكهروضوئي ( Photoelectric Effect ) :
ظاهرة اكتشفها العالم الروسي ستوليتوف عام 1872م ،
حيث أخذ دورقاً مفرغاً من الهواء ووضع فيه لوحين معدنيين ، وربطهما ببطارية كهربائية ، وكان طبيعيا ً إلا أنه كان يمر التيار الكهربي ،
لكنه وجه ضوء مصباح زئبقي على أحد اللوحين تولد تيار كهربي في الدائرة الكهربية ،
وعندما أطفأ ضوء المصباح توقف مرور التيار ،
فاستنتج من ذلك وجود عوامل ناقلة لتيار الكهرباء في الدورق عرفت فيما بعد باسم الإلكترونات ،
وهي لم تظهر إلا عند توجيه الضوء على اللوح.
وقد عالج أينشتين في عام 1905م ،
هذه الظاهرة وأوضح أن سر التيار الكهربي يعود إلى انطلاق الإلكترونات من المعدن بتأثير الضوء.
للمزيد من المعلومات عن ظاهرة التحول الكهروضوئي ( Photoelectric Effect ) :
( الصفحة 1 من 4 )
102 ردّ على “موسوعة الاختراعات ( 307 ) دائرة المعارف الذرية 5 ( Photoelectric Effect – Geiger Counter – Atomicdust – Photon )”
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