عدسة تقلل الانحراف الكروي
كريستيان هوغنس قسطنطين هوغنس
( بالانجليزية : Christiaan Huygens )
رياضي وفيزيائي هولندي
الميلاد : 14 أبريل 1629 اللاهاي – جمهورية هولندا
الوفاة : 8 يوليو 1695 ( 66 سنة ) اللاهاي – جمهورية هولندا
تلقى هوغنس تعليمه في ليدن وبريدا ثم اتجه إلى البحث العلمي ، ونجح في ذلك بشكل واضح فاختير زميلاً في الجمعية الملكية.
درس هوغنس خصائص الرقاص ” البندول ” المركب وكان أول من استعمله كمنظم في ساعات الحائط كما استخدمه في تحديد عجلة الجاذبية الأرضية.
كان هوغنس أول من اثبت أن الحلقة التي تحيط بكوكب زحل مكتملة الإحاطة ، وقاس ميل مستوى زحل بالنسبة للمستوى الخسوفي.
وكان أول من رسم المريخ وأول من وصف سديم كوكبه الجبار ( الجوزاء Orion )
واكتشف تابعا ً لزحل يسمى ” ايابيتوس ” Iapetus ، وذكر أنه يشبه قمر الأرض من حيث إظهاره لوجه واحد فقط تجاه كوكبه الأم.
اخترع وصمم هوغنس عدسة تقلل من أثر الانحراف الكروي ،
كما وضع سنة 1678 النظرية الموجبة للضوء ، ولكنها لم تلق تأييدا ً واسعا ً لعجزها عن تفسير الاستقطاب الضوئي رغم أنها فسرت الانكسار المزدوج بشكل مقبول.
وكانت هذه النظرية معارضة لنظرية نيوتن Newton من 1642 إلى 1727 المعروفة ” بنظرية الجسيمات ” corpuscular theory ،
وبقي الخلاف قائما ً بين مؤيدي هاتين النظريتين حتى اتحدتا فيما يسمى بالميكانيكا الموجية , Wave – mechanics
وأدخل هوغنس استعمال نوع جديد من مضخات الهواء المزودة بلوحة ووعاء شبه مخروطي.
كتب هوغنس عددا ً من المؤلفات التي دارت أعماله حولها ومنها عن انجازاته في :
نظام كوكب زحل Systema Saturnium ظهر سنة 1659 ،
ورقاص ساعة الحائط ظهر سنة 1673.
جزيرة الأمل || Hope island
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