نبتون … كوكب العواصف الجبارة ( سلسلة المجموعة الشمسية – الموضوع رقم 21 )

كان اكتشاف كوكب ( نبتون ) في عام 1846 ، انتصاراً لقدرة العقل البشري ، فقد تم التنبؤ بوجوده قبل رصده فعلاً في السماء إذ لاحظ علماء الفلك انحرافاً غريباً في مدار كوكب ( أورانوس ) ، وفسروا هذا باقترابه من كوكب مجهول ، وحددوا مكانه بالتقريب ثم ثبت فيما بعد وجود كوكب في نفس المكان الذي حددوه من قبل ، وهو كوكب (نبتون).

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يدور كوكب ( نبتون ) في مسار طويل حول الشمس ، فيقطع دورة كاملة في نحو 165 عاماً ، بسرعة تبلغ 5.5 كيلومتر في الثانية.

( نبتون ) هو الكوكب الثامن بُعداً عن الشمس ، والمسافة بينهما تبلغ نحو 4497 مليون كيلومتر ، وتصل الحرارة فوق سطحه إلى 214 درجة مئوية تحت الصفر ويدور الكوكب حول محوره في نحو 16 ساعة.

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( نبتون ) كوكب عملاق يبلغ قطره حوالي 49530 كيلومتراً ، والمعتقد أن له مركزاً من الصخور والحديد والسليكون ، يحيط به محيط هائل من المياه المختلطة بمادة صخرية ، ويبقى المحيط في حالة سائلة لما يتعرض له من ضغط جوي مروع.

يتميز بغلاف غازي كثيف من الهيدروجين والهيليوم والميثان ، كما أن له مجالاً مغناطيسياً قوياً يمتد تأثيره إلى مئات الآلاف من الكيلومترات أعلى الكوكب.

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لكوكب ( نبتون ) أربع حلقات تحيط به ، يتراوح عرضها من 15 كيلومتراً إلى 5800 كيلومتر ، والغريب أن هذه الحلقات عبارة عن ( أقواس ) من الجزيئات الكبيرة ، وغاز الميثان هو الذي يعطي لكوكب ( نبتون ) لونه الأزرق المميز ، لأنه يمتص الضوء الأحمر والبرتقالي ، ويشتت الضوء الأزرق.

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المعتقد أن عواصف جبارة فوق سطح ( نبتون ) هي التي تدفع بالميثان إلى الطبقات العُليا من الغلاف الجوي ، وهذه العواصف هي الأسرع بين كل أجرام المجموعة الشمسية ، إذ تصل سرعتها إلى 2000 كيلومتر في الساعة. وتظهر كمناطق سوداء هائلة فوق ( نبتون ) ، ويدور حول هذا الكوكب 13 قمراً ، أكبرها ( ترايتون ).

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جزيرة الأمل || Hope island

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